--the literal, or diachronic time events--the
way we might summarize the story chronologically;
"real time"; the tightest mimesis? the most
<----what are the "anachronies" between all these that show simplicity or complexity in a narrative?---->
story, narrative, and narration interact by means of these three verbal
qualities which determine differing levels of anachronies:
--the act of telling; the figurative, or synchronic time (fiction time stands
in for literal time metonymically, but as readers, we accept this
(in a nutshell: story action vs. narration POV(s))
"Mood is the atmosphere of the narrative created by distance and
perspective" (Tyson 220)
- distance: distance between story and narration.
- The more intrusive the narrator, the more distance between story
and narration (the act of someone telling the story); less mimesis (sometimes fewer story and setting etc. details)
- Less distance means the
story tells itself; there are more story details, less voice.
- zero degree--story
and narration are the same--the least amount of
distance between story and the perspective that filters it (but how much literature does this?)
- perspective: point of view--the eyes, or focalization; the
character who's POV focuses us (Culler) which may be different than the
narrator (see Voice also "The Jilting of Granny Weatherall").
be more internal, or a "subjective" I
- may be more "objective" (3rd Omniscient)
- may be in
control or subordinate, or any combination
- first: I; We (sometimes E. Welty or J. Eugenedies use a We POV that
can range in intrusiveness or intimacy).
- second: You (can seem intimate in a surreal way; eventually feels
- third: omniscient; limited (like 1st)
(in a nutshell: chronological story time/action vs. narrative page time or duration and frequency fluxuations)
- order: chronology of the story vs. the chronology of the
narrative; see a sample: you can also see a lot of this in The Jilting of Granny Weatherall)
- analepsis--retrospection, or flashback
- prolepsis--anticipation (flash forward?)
- duration: pacing--event time vs. space taken up on the page (try
a writing exercise with these):
- summary: reading time is less than than story time
- scene: reading time equals story time; dramatization
- gap: time passes but isn't noted in the narrative; white space;
what isn't being said (may still saturate what is said)
- stretch: reading time is longer than story time; slow
- pause: narrative is interrupted to go somewhere completely
different, then returns (perhaps as if nothing is odd about the pause or the pomo short-circuit--Moby Dick's
- frequency: one event may be described in the
narrative multiple times with different twists; or a certain event may be repeated in
story time, but told once (deja vu? also called iteration).
- iteration, or the "sometimes" or "often"
quality of story telling; something that happens multiple times but is
only narrated once (sometimes my wife doesn't plan everything in
advance like ingredients for Pad Thai or birth control; she always
acts surprised when things don't well; we kissed all through the winter,
and then something changed)
(also see Metro pp. 121+)
(in a nutshell: story action vs. narration attitude(s) and layers vs. narrative)
Narrator's voice or attitude:
- which may be a very immediate,
personal, intimate, instrusive character voice (this doesn't just happen with first person POV;
personal, confessional; the narrator is a brightly colored lense);
- or this narrator's voice might be more distant
- There may be a somewhat different voice attitude over/around/uber
the visible narrator. This ubernarrator (lee's word) may
be more autonomous from the story like an intrusive "ideal"
author which sometimes can be seen through inside jokes or obvious
personal politics, or in a major shift from the narrator's persona. This is still not the same as the
"real" author who was "killed" by poststructuralist theories.
- zero degree-- author and narrator are the same, but Genette says this
is basically impossible, thus we should focus on the least
amount of distance between story and narrator (the narrator is more a key part of the
story and doesn't get in the way much at all; as opposed to Scheherazade's embedding which is at the 5th degree -
Genette 214; also see Barthes?)
- The relationship of the narrator(s) or voices to the story and to the narrative
can show reliability or unreliability (Gatsby's Nick is unreliable which takes the focus off Story and puts it on Narration).