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The Wanderer Glossary

























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In defining/glossing terms I will provide alternative spellings in () to help locate the word in other glossaries, this will be followed by the number of times (1x) it appears in the poem and then by an attempt to identify the part of speech and then by various definitions–often referring to alternative grammatical forms here as well, when necessary.


acwiš (a-cwešan) (1x) verb. to say to utter to declare -- or cwižan to say speak — or cwišan to speak or to moan in grief, to mourn , or lament

acyžan (a-cyžan) (1x) verb. to show announce confirm— or (cyšan) to make known, annonce, tell, relate, proclaim, announce,

age (agan) (1x) verb. to own, have, possess, rule or (agen) adjective. own

ana adjective (1x) alone or (an) numeral/adjective/pronoun one, only, sole, singular, singular, solitary, a certain one,

andan (1x) masculine. vexation or anger or (adan) an emotion of the mind--malice, envy, anger, zeal, annoyance, vexation, hatred

anhaga (an-haga) (1x) masculine. one dwelling alone or recluse or (an-hoga)

anhogan (1x) masculine. care, or anxiety, or from (hogian : to think, consider use the mind, or hoga: careful, thoughtful, prudent)

aręd (a-ręd) (1x) masuline. intensive of ręd counsel, welfare, safety, what is best to do, or prepared, resolute, determined,

are (ar) (2x) feminine. honour, honesty, favour, benefit, pity, mercy,

asca (ęsca) (1x) masculine. ash-wood, ash-wood spear, ash-wood boat, or dust

asecgan (a-secgan) (1x) verb. to speak out, declare, express, tell, say, relate, explain, announce, proclaim

ęfter (1x) adverb/preposition. after or post- or along, through, during, according to, by means of, about

ęlda (ęlde/ielde) (1x) masculine. man or (ęldo) the elders or (ęldu) feminine. age, old age, an age, a century or (*led) masculine. fire or firebrand

ęr (4x) adverb/conjunction/preposition before, sooner earlier, formerly, already, ante-, preceding, ancient, prior

ęt (2x) preposition. at, to, before, with, in, for, near, against or (ęt) noun. food or eating

ętgędre (1x) adverb. together, united, at the same time




bažian (bašian) (1x) verb. to wash, foment, cherish, to bathe


benne (benn) (1x) feminine. a wound or (bennian) to wound

beoš (beošan) (1x) verb. are, to be

beorht (1x) adjective. bright, light, clear, lucid, splendid, excellent, or (beorhtan) to shine

beorn (2x) masculine. a man, a warrior , or a prince, nobleman, chief, general, soldier

beot (1x) neutered. a vow, threat, command, menace, peril, boasting, boasting promise, promise, or (on beot) adverb. threateningly, or (beatan) verb. to beat or hurt

bi (1x) preposition. by, near to, at, in, upon, of, about, or (bi/beo) feminine. bee

bidęled (bi-dęled pp of bi-dęlan) (1x) verb. to deprive, bereave of anything, to deliver, to release, free from anything

bidrorene (bi-droren) (1x) past participle of (dreosan). fallen, perished, crumbled, disintegrated

biš (biž) (10x) verb. is, from (beon)

biforan (bi-foran/be-foran) (1x) adverb/preposition. before, in front of , in the presence of, prior to , sooner than, ante-, of old, earlier, formerly, at hand, openly

bihrorene (bi-hroren) (1x) past participle of (bi-hreosan) rushed down, covered, fallen, gone to ruin, or attacked

bindaš (1x) 3rd plural (bindan). bind, tie, restrain

binde (1x) subjunctive (bindan). should bind or (bind) neuter. a binding, fetter, band, wreath, or (binde) feminine. a head-band,

bindeš (1x) 3rd singular (bindan). binds, ties, restrains

biwaune (bi-wawan/be-wawan) (1x) verb. to blow against, to blow upon, to be shaken by the wind, to be blown by the wind

biwrah (bi-wrah) (1x) 3rd plural (bewreon) covered, hid, covered over, enwrapped, protected

biž (bi[) (2x) verb. is, from (beon)

blęd,(1x) masculine. a blast, blowing, or blowing breath, inspiration, spirit, life, mind, glory, prosperity, dignity, richess or (blęd) neuter. blade or leaf blade, leaf or flowers, fruit or blade of an oar

bote (bot) (1x) feminine. help, assistance, remedy, cure, boot, or offering, compensation due to an injured person for wrongs sustained, peace offering, correction, reparation, restoring, renewing, repentance,

brędan (1x) verb. to make broad, broaden, extend, spread or (brędan) to roast, broil, warm

breac (1x) preterite singular (brucan) enjoyed, used, partook of, possessed

breahtma (breahtm) (1x) masculine. a noise, a tumult, sound, cry, revelry or (bearhtma) an instant, atwinkling (of an eye), a shining, moment, glance, an atom

breostcofan (breost-cofa) masculine. the breast chamber, the breast, the heart, mind

breostum (breost) neuter. the breast of man or beast, the breasts, the seat of the vital powers, the feelings, the affections

brimfuglas (brim-fugel) (1x) masculine. a sea bird--seagull

bringeš 3rd singular (bringan) brings, adduces, leads, procures, bears, carries

bryttan (brytta) (1x)a bestower, dispenser, distributor, prince, lord,

bune (1x) feminine. a cup, beaker, drinking vessel, or a reed

burgwara (burg-waran) (1x) masculine. inhabitants of a city

byrnwiga (byrn-wiga)(1x) masculine. a warrior wearing a byrnie, a soldier clothed in armor, a mail-clad warrior




ceare (cear)(1x) feminine. sorrows, anxieties, cares, griefs

Cearo (cearu)(1x) feminine. care, sorrow, grief

clyppe (1x) present subjunctive of (clyppan). embrace, clasp, cherish

cneo (1x) neuter. a knee, or generation, relationship, degree of relation, possibly related to (cneodan) to give

cnyssaš (1x) present plural of (cnyssan). press, trouble, toss, strike, dash, beat, overcome

collenferš (collen-ferhž) (1x) adjective. fierce-minded, bold of spirit, bold

cušra (cužra) (1x) adjective. known, familiar possibly related to (cunnan) to know, could

cunnaš (1x) present plural of (cunnan) become acquainted with, know or with infinitives know how to, have the power to, be able to, can

cunne (3x) from cunnan he knows or can or subjunctive should know

cwęš (2x) 3rd singular (cwešan) said, spoke, replied

cwicra (cwic) (1x) adjective. alive, living

cwidegiedda (1x) neuter plural. songs

cwižan (cwišan) (1x) verb. to moan in grief, mourn, lament, or (cwešan) to speak

cwom (4x) 3rd preterite cuman. came or went

cymeš (1x) 3rd present (cuman) comes, goes

cysse (1x) present subjunctive of (cyssan) kiss




dęl (1x) masculine. a part, portion, deal, number

deaše (dea])(1x) masculine. death

deope (1x) adjective. deeply, profoundly, thoroughly, entirely, earnestly, thoughtfully

deorce (1x) adverb. Darkly, sadly, obscurely, gloomily

dogra (1x) masculine/neuter. days

domgeorne (dom-georne) (1x) adjective. eager for justice, ambitious, just, virtuous,

dreame (dream)(1x) masculine. revelry, joy, pleasure, gaiety, gladness, mirth, rejoicing, rapture, ecstacy, frenzy, or what causes mirth--music or musical instrument

dreorig (1x) adjective. sad, sorrowful, dreary, gloomy, wretched, pensive, or bloody, gory, glorious,

dreorighleor (dreorig-hleor) (1x) adjective. sad of countenance, sad-faced,

dreorigne (dreorignys) adjective. dreariness, sadness, gloominess, wretchedness

dreoseš (1x) 3rd present (dreosan) rushes, falls, perishes, crumbles also rushing, falling, perishing, crumbling,

duguž (1x) (feminine) multitude, troops, army, people, men, attendants, nobles, the heavenly host, majesty, that which is good and honorable or power, manhood and all who have reached manhood,

duguže (1x) (feminine) multitude, troops, army, people, men, attendants, nobles, the heavenly host, majesty, that which is good and honorable or power, manhood and all who have reached manhood

durre (1x) 1st present (durran) I dare, presume,





eal (eall) (5x) adjective. all, entire, or adverb. altogether, entirely, or pronoun. everything

Eala (Ea-la) (3x) interjection. Alas!, O!, Oh!,

eald (1x) adjective. old, ancient, antique, or honored, eminent, great, exalted

Eall (1x) adjective. all, entire, or adverb. altogether, entirely, or pronoun. everything

ealra (1x) plural gentive (eall) all, every

ealre (1x) feminine dative (eall) all

eardgeard (eard-geard) (1x) masculine. a dwelling place, place of habitation, world

eardstapa (eard-stapa) (1x) masculine. wanderer, earth-stepper, land-stepper,

earfeža (earfo]e) (1x) neuter. hardship, labor, trouble, difficulty, suffering, torment, torture or adjective. hard difficult, troublesome

earfošlic (1x) adjective. difficult, full of hardship

earmcearig (1x) adjective. miserable, sad

earmne (1x) adjective. miserable, wretched, poor, helpless, or the poor

ederas (eodor)(1x) masculine. houses, dwellings, or hedges, boundaries, or princes, lords

ešle (e[el) (1x) masculine. country, native land, ancestral home, domain, home,

eft (2x) adverb. again, a second time, anew, or then, thereupon, afterwards, hereafter, thereafter

elne (1x) dative singular (ellen) zeal, strength, courage, fortitude,

enta (ent) (1x) masculine. giants

eoršscręfe (1x) neuter. earthen cave, grave

eorl (2x) masculine. warrior, man, hero, earl, nobleman, an Anglo-Saxon nobleman of high rank, a brave man, leader, chief

eorla (1x) genitive plural (eorl). warriors, men, noblemen

Eorlas (1x) plural (eorl). warriors, men. noblemen

eorle (1x) dative singular (eorl) warrior, man, hero, earl, nobleman

eoržan (eoržen) (2x) adjective. of the earth or in the earth





fah (1x) adjective. guilty, criminal, proscribed, outlawed, inimical, hostile or masculine. foe, enemy

fęder (1x) masculine. father

fęgen (1x) adjective. glad, willing joyful rejoicing elated

fęrlice (fęr-lice) (1x) adverb. suddenly, unexpectedly, quickly,

fęste (2x) adjective. fast, firm, secure

fęstnung (1x) feminine. security, safety, or a bond, fastening, strengthening, or confirmation, ratification, engagement, pledge, or shelter, protection,

feallež(1x) present participle of (feallan) falling, falling down, falling dead or 3rd present of (feallan) to fall, fall down, fail, fall dead

fealwe (fealu) (1x) adjective. fallow, yellow, pale, dusky, dun-colored, bay-colored

fela (1x) adjective. many, much, many things, very much

feoh (1x) neuter. wealth, property, cattle, moveable good, living animal, instrument of monetary exchange

feohgifre (feoh-gifre) (1x) adjective. greedy of money/goods, avaricious, covetous,

feor (feorr) (3x) adjective/adverb. far, beyond, moreover,

ferš (ferhš) (1x) masculine/neuter. soul, spirit, mind, life

ferše (1x) dative (ferš). soul, spirit, mind, life

feršloca (ferš-loca) (1x) masculine. the soul’s enclosure, breasts, thoughts, feelings, body, bosom

feršlocan (ferš-locan) (1x) masculine. the soul’s enclosure, breasts, thoughts, feelings, body, bosom

ferede (1x) past plural (ferian). carried, conveyed, transported, went, departed,

feterum (1x) dative plural (feter). fetters, bonds, chains for the feet

fežra (fešer) (1x) feminine. feather

findan (1x) find, find out, meet with, discover, invent, imagine, contrive, order, devise, dispose, arrange, determine,

fleotendra (1x) masculine. floating ones, seafarers

flet (flett) (1x) floor, ground, hall, floor of a house

foldan (1x) adjective/adverb. earthen, earthly

for (1x) preposition. for, on account of, because of, with, by, according to, through, before, fore,

foršon (for-šon/for-žon) (1x) adverb/conjunction. for that, therefore, for that cause, because, consequently,

foršwege (forš-weg)(1x) masculine. an onward course, a going, forth, a journey, a departure,

forht (1x) adjective. frightened, afraid, fearful, timid, or dreadful, terrible, formidable

fornom (for-nam) (1x) past plural (for-niman) destroyed, took away, plundered, deformed, ransacked, wasted, consumed, devoured,

fornoman (for-nam)(1x) past plural (for-niman) destroyed, took away, plundered, deformed, ransacked, wasted, consumed, devoured,

foržolian (foršolian) (1x) verb. to go without, lack

foržon (for-žon/foršon) (3x) adverb/conjunction. for that, therefore, for that cause, because, consequently,

frefran (1x) verb. to console, comfort, cheer

freomęgum (freo-męgum) (1x) masculine. noble kinsmen, relations

freond (1x) masculine. friend, lover,

freondleasne (freond-leasne)(1x) adjective. friendless, or orphan, or outlaw

freorig (1x) adjective. freezing, freezing cold, chilled, frigid, frozen, mournful,

frod (1x) adjective. wise, prudent, sage, skillful, experienced, or aged, old, ancient

frofre (1x) genitive (frofor) feminine. consolation, comfort, solace, help, benefit, profit, refuge,

fugel (fugol/fuglas) masculine. bird, fowl

ful (full) (1x) adjective/adverb full, complete, filled, entire, utter, perfectly or (ful) foul, dirty, impure, corrupt, stinking, guilty





gęstlic (gęst-lic/gastlic) ghastly, terrible, ghostly, or spiritual, holy

geara (gear) neuter. year

geardagum (gear-dagum) masculine. days of yore, yore days, days of year, time of life

geare (gearwe)(1x) adverb. readily, well, very well, indeed, really, entirely

gearwe (geare) (1x) adverb. readily, well, very well, indeed, really, entirely

gebidan (1x) verb. to get by waiting, await, endure, live to see, experience,

gebideš, (1x) 3rd singular (gebidan). waits, endures, experiences,

gebind (2x) neuter. a binding, fastening, band, (expression for "surface of the water")

gebindaš (1x) present plural (gebindan). bind, tie, restrain, fetter,

gecrong (1x) past (gecrigan/gecrincan) yielded, fell in battle, sank, fell dead, died

gedęlde (1x) past (gedęlan). divided, shared, imparted, parted, separated, distributed, partook, severed,

gedreas (1x) 3rd past (gedreosan). rushed, fell, perished, crumbled

geferan (1x) verb. to go, travel, go on, reach by traveling or to behave, fare, get on, come, get to one place

gefremman (2x) verb. to do, promote, perfect, perform, commit, accomplish,

gehealdež (1x) 3rd present (gehealdan). keeps, holds, observes, keeps in, retains, reserves, preserves, saves, defends, protects

geholena (ge-hola) (1x) masculine. protector, defender,

gehwam (ge-hwęm (1x) dative (gewha) whom, each one, whomever, some one, everone

gehwylce (ge-hwylc/ gehwilc) pronoun/interrogative/adjective. which, whoever, what, whosoever, whatever, or each, any , all, every, some,

gehydde (ge-hydde) (1x) past tense (ge-hydan). hid, concealed, preserved or sheathed, or buried

gehygd (ge-hygd) feminine/neuter. though, mind, cogitation, meditation, deliberation, consultation

gemenged (1x) past participle (ge-mengan). mixed, mingled, confused,

gemon (2x) 1st or 3rd present. (gemunan). rember(s), recall(s)

gemynd (1x) feminine/neuter. mind, memory, thought, rememberance, commemoration, memento, memorial

gemyndig (1x) adjective. mindful, remembering, recollecting, thoughtful, wise

genap (1x) past participle (genipan). darkened

geneahhe (1x) adverb. enough, sufficiently, abundantly, frequently, earnestly, very much, instantly

geniwad (2x) 3rd past (ge-niwian). made new, renewed, restored, or changed,

geoguše (1x) feminine. youth, the state of being young

geond (3x) preposition. through, throughout, among, over, beyond, along, in, or yond, yonder, thither,

geondhweorfeš (geond-hweoreš)(1x) 3rd present (geond-hweorfan). turns, passes through, goes about, transverses, turns-through, returns-through,

geondsceawaš (geond-sceawaš) (1x) plural present (geond-sceawian). to look at, look upon, regard, survey, look-through,

geondžence (geond-žence) (1x) 1st present (geond-žencan). think over, contemplate, think through, imagine, consider,

geondženceš (geond-ženceš) (1x) 3rd present (geond-žencan). thinks over, contemplates, thinks through, imagines, considers,

georn (1x) advetive. desirous, earger, anxious, zealous, studious, intent, careful, diligent,

georne (1x) adverb. eargerly, anxiously, zealously, studiously, intently, carefully, diligently,

gesęt (gesęt) (1x) plural past (ge-sittan) sat, remained seated, was stationed

gesceaft (ge-sceaft) (1x) feminine. creation, creature, decree, destiny, the future, an element

geseldan (ge-seldan) masculine. companions ones of the same dwelling, comrades.

gesetu (ge-setu) (1x) neuter. seats, habitations, places, residences

gesihš (gesihš) feminine. sight, power of seeing, vision, something seen, aspect,

gesteal (ge-steal/ge-steall) masculine/neuter. foundation, construction, frame

gesweorce (ge-sweorce) 1st present (ge-sweorcan). become gloomy, grow dark, or am darkened, saddened, angered

gewat (ge-węt) plural past (ge-witan). departed, went

geweorc (ge-weorc) neuter. fortification, military work, work, fort, fortress

gežencan (ge-žencan) verb. think, consider, think of, imagine, reflect upon, weigh,

gežohte (ge-žohte) 3rd past (ge-žencan). thought, reflected, considered, imagined,

gežyldig (ge-žyldig) adjective. patient, long-suffering, quiet,

giefstolas (gief-stola) masculine. gift-stool, gift-seat, throne, throne of grace,

gielpes (1x) genitive masculine neuter. (gielp). glory, boast, vaunt, vow

gleaw adjective. clearsighted, wise, clever, skillful, sagacious, prudent, good

gliwstafum (gliw-stafum/gleotęfum) adverb. joyously joyfully,

gold (1x) neuter. gold,

goldwine (gold-wine) (2x) masculine. gold-friend, gold-lord, a liberal prince, a kindly prince, generous, lord,

greteš 3rd present (gretan). greets, approaches, salutes, comes to visit, or attacks, or touches, knows carnally,

guma masculine. man





hafaš (1x) (habban) have, has, posses, possesses, keep, keeps

hagle (hęgl/hagol) masculine. hail, sleet

hara (har) adjective. grey, hoary, old

hatheort (hat-heort) adjective. hot-tempered, irascible, wrathful, angry, furious, hot-hearted

hęglfare (hęgl-fare) feminine hailstorm

hęle masculine. warrior, man, brave man, hero

hęležum (hęlež) masculine dative plural. warrior, man, hero

he (10x) pronoun. he, or, it, or she

heafod (1x) masculine/neuter. head

heah (1x) adjective. high, tall, lofty, sublime, haughty

healde from (healdan) to hold, keep, grasp, restrain, confine, contain, guard, protect,

hean adjective. low mean, vile, abject, poor, humble, humbled

heanne masculine accusative singular of (heah). high, or adverb. ignominiously, shamefully, abjectly

hefigran (hefig) (1x) adjective. heavy, severe, grievous, oppressive

helpe (help) feminine. help, aid, succor

heo feminine nominative singular. he, it ,she

heofonum (2x) masculine/feminine. skies, heavens, heaven

heolstre (heolstor) (1x) genitive plural masculine. hiding place, that which covers, conceals, or darkness, a veil

heortan (heorte) feminine. heart

her (4x) adverb. here, in this world, at this time

hi (1x) nominative plural of (he). they

him (7x) dative singular and plural (he). him or them

hine (2x) masculine accusative singular (he). him

his (8x) genitive singular (he). his

holm (1x) masculine. wave, water, sea, ocean,

honda (1x) (hond/hand) feminine. hands

hondum (1x) (hond/hand) feminine. hands or power, control, possession, charge, agency

hordcofan (1x) (hord-cofa) masculine. treasure chamber, closet, (hoard closet) or a place where thoughts are stored–heart, breast, thoughts

hrędwyrde (1x) adjective. (hręd-wyrde) hasty in speech, hasty words, or ready-worded, quick-worded, swift-worded

hreo (2x) (hreoh) adjective. rough, fierce, angry troubled, stormy, tempestuous, disturbed, or (hreof) rough, scabby

hreosan (1x) verb. to fall rapidly, fall down, turn in

hreosende (1x) past (hreosan). fell rapidly, fell down

hreran (1x) verb. to move, shake, stir, agitate

hrežra (hrežer/hrešer) masculine genitive plural. heart, breast,

hriš (1x) feminine, snowstorm, or a storm, tempest

hrim (1x) masculine. hoarfrost, frost

hrimcealde (hrim-ceald) adjective. cold as frost, icy cold, frost-cold

hrime (1x) acussitive/dative/genetive singular (hrim). hoarfrost. frost.

hrusan (2x)(hruse) feminine. the earth, the ground

hryšge (hryšig/hrišig) adjective. stormbeaten, ruined

hryre (1x) masculine. fall, death

hu (5x) adverb. how

hwan (1x) adverb/conjunction. when, or (hwon, or for-hwon) when or why.

hwęr (6x) adverb/conjunction. where, somewhere, whence,

hweorfan (1x) verb. to turn, change, go, return, depart, go about wander, hover about

hwider (1x) adverb/conjunction. whither, which way, where

hwilum adverb. at times, for a time, sometimes

hycge (1x) (hycgan) to employ the mind, take thought, be mindful, think, consider, meditate

hyge (1x) masculine. heart, mind, spirit, thought, courage, soul

hyra (1x) genetive plural (he /they). their





ic (8x) pronoun. I

idel (1x) adjective. empty, vacant, idle, that which is useless, vain, or frivolous

idlu (1x) variant of (idel). adjective. empty, vacant, idle, that which is useless, vain, or frivolous

in (inn) (8x) preposition. in, on, into, inside

indryhten (in-dryhten/inn-dryhten) adjective. very noble, distinguished, noble, courtly, befitting one who belongs to a king,

is (1x) 3rd person of beon,  is  or  neuter. ice

iu (1x) (geo) adverb. formerly, of old, before





lagulade (lagu-lad) (1x) feminine. water-path, water way, a way across the water.

larcwidum (lar-cwide) masculine. instructive speech, a precept, custom, maxim,

laste (last)(1x) masculine. a step, footstep, track, trail, treace, sole of the foot

lęne (4x) adjective. transitory, temporary, transient, not-enduring, granted for only a time, not permanent, frail,

lease (1x) adjective. false, lacking, loose, free from, destitute or void of, without

lecge (1x) (lecgan) to lay, place, put, or to slay

leofes (leof) (1x) adjective. dear, beloved, loved, desirable, pleasant, acceptable, on who is dear,

leofra (leof) masculine. beloved ones, dear ones

leofre (leof) masculine. beloved ones, dear ones

licgaš (1x) 3rd plural (licgan). lie, are at rest, lie dead, lie in bed, lie low, fail

lif (2x) neuter. life, the oposite of death, theperiod during which someone lives

longe (lange) (2x) adverb. long, a long time, far, late

lyt (1x) adverb, few, little





maga (męga) (1x) genitive plural of (męg). kinsmen’s, sons’

mago (magu) (1x) masculine. man, kinsman, warrior,

magužegnas (magu-žegnas) masculine. young retainers, thanes, servants, follower, retainer, warrior,

mažžumgyfa (mašum-gifa) masuline. treasure giver, giver of costly gifts, a liberal prince.

męg (4x) 3rd person singular of magan, can or may or masculine. relative, son, kinsman, or a woman, kinswoman

męre (1x) adjective. splendid, illustrious, famous, great, excellent, sublime, celbrated, widely known

meahte (1x) feminine. power, might, ability, virility

mearg (mearh/mearas) masculine. horse, steed

mec pronoun. me

meoduhealle (medu-healle) feminine. mead-hall, banquet hall,

metudes (1x) masculine genitive (metod/meotod). creator, god

mid (3x) preposition/conjunction. with, or and

middangeard (2x) (midden-geard) masculine. world, earth, the middle dwelling,

miltse (milds) feminine. mildness, kindness, mercy, favor,

min (2x) pronoun. my, mine

mine (2x) pronoun. my, mine

minne (3x) pronoun. my, mine

missenlice (missen-lice) (1x) adverb. variously, diversely, differently,

mod (2x) neuter. mind, spirit, disposition, the inner man, spiritual part of the body, special quality of the soul, or courage, pride

modcearig (mod-cearig) adjective. sorrowful of heart, anxious of heart, anxious in spirit

mode (2x) accusative (mod). mind, spirit, disposition,

modge (1x) (modig) adejective. courageous, spirited, bold, brave, high-souled, magnanimous,

modsefa (1x) (mod-sefa) masculine. mind, heart, spirit, thought,

modsefan (1x) (mod-sefan) masculine. mind, heart, spirit, thought,

mon (man) pronoun. one or (mann) masculine. man, human being

mondryhten (manndryhten)masculine. lord, master,



nalęs (nalles/nales)(1x) adverb. not at all, by no means, not

nales (nalles/nalęs)(1x) adverb. not at all, by no means, not

nan (1x) Pronoun/adverb. none, no one, no

nęfre (2x) adverb. never

ne (14x) adverb/conjunction. not, nor, or neither/nor

neah (1x) preposition/adverb. near, near to, nearly, or later, latter, last, latest

nemže (nymše) (1x) conjunction. unless, except, or nor

nihthelm (niht-helm)(1x) maculine. the cover of night, night’s helmet, the protection of night

nihtscua (niht-scua) (1x) masculine. the shadow of night

nipeš (1x) 3rd present (nipan). grows dark, obscures

Nis (1x) negative 3rd singular (beon). is not,

no (3x) adverb/adjective. no,

noržan (1x) adverb. from the north,

nu (3x) adverb/conjunction. now, at this time, now that






of (1x) preposition. of, from, out of, concerning, or away, off,

ofer (3x) preposition/adverb. over, above, across, inspite of, contrary to, after,

ofgeafon (1x) preterite plural (of-giefan). gave up, left, abandoned,

oft (6x) adverb. often

on (8x) preposition. in, into, on, to toward, among, at, against

ond (and) (11x) conjunction. and

Ongietan (On-gietan) (1x) verb. to understand, perceive, make out, realize

onsendeš (on-seneš)(1x) 3rd singular (on-sendan). sends forth, despatches (an emissary), sends

onwęcneš (on-węcneš) 3rd singular (on-węcan). awakes, wakes up

onwendeš (on-wendeš) 3rd singular (on-wendan). changes, turns

ožbęr (ož-bęr) (2x) preterite singular (ož-beran.) carried off, bore off, bore away,

ožžęt (ož-žęt) (2x) conjunction. until

ožže (ož-že) (2x) conjunction. until, or, or either/or





rice (1x) adjective. rich, powerful, mighty, or neuter. rule, dominion, power, kingdom, empire

rune (run) (1x) feminine. a secret, whisper, private counsel, mystery

rycene (recene) (1x) adverb. quickly, readily, promptly, instantly






sare (1x) adverb. sorely, grievously, bitterly, painfully,

(1x) masculine/feminine. sea

sęlan (1x) verb. to fasten with a cord or, to happen, betide, fortune

sceal (sceall) (7x) present (sculan). obliged to, have to, must, bound to, ought to, shall,

sceolde (3x) (variant of sculan). obliged to, have to, must, bound to, ought to, shall,

scyppend (scieppend) masculine singular. creator, the creator

se (6x) demonstrative adjective. the, that or demonstrative pronoun. she, he , it , that

seceš (1x) 3rd singular (secan) seeks, tries to find, looks for, visits, searches for,

secga (1x) masculine. sayer, informant, or (secg) man, warrior

sefan (sefa) (1x) masculine. understanding, mind, heart, spirit

sele (1x) masculine. a house, hall, dwelling

seledreamas (sele-dreamas/sele-dream) mirth of the hall, hall revery, festive pleasure, joyous life of the hall,

selesecgas (sele-secgas/sele-secg) hall-men, hall-warriors, retainers or hall-sayers

sendan (1x) verb. to send, to cause to go, to move to a place

seo (3x) feminine article/pronoun (se). the, this, that, this one, that one, he, she, it, who, which, that, that which,

sinces (sinc) (1x) neuter. treasure, gold, silver, jewels,

sincžege (sinc-žege/sinc-žegu) feminine. the receiving of treasure, acceptance of treasure

sindon (1x) present plural (beon). are

sižžan (1x) conjunction/adverb. since, after, when, or afterwards, then, subsequntly, after that, thereupon,

slęp (1x) masculine. sleep, slumber

sližen (sliže) (1x) adjective. cruel, hard, dangerous, evil

snaw (1x) masculine. snow

snottor (snotor) (1x) adjective. prudent, wise, sagacious

sohte ( 1x) past (secgan). sought, visited, looked for, searched for, tried to find

somod (samod) (1x) adverb. together, simultaneously, at the same time, or as well, also, too,

sorg (sorh) feminine. sorrow, grief, affliction, trouble, care, anxiety,

sože (1x) adverb. truly, truthfully or sož neuter. truth

spriceš (1x) 3rd present (sprecan). speaks, utters, makes a speech, converses, declares

stanhleožu (stan-hleožu/stan-hilž) neuter. a stone slope, a slippery slope, a rock

stodon (1x) past plural (standan). stood, remained, stopped

stondaž (standež/standaž) (1x) 3rd singular or plural present (standan). stand(s), remain(s), stop(s)

stondeš (standež) (3x) 3rd present (standan). stands, remains, stops

stormas (storm) masculine. storm, tempest, uproar, tumult, violent attack

Sume (sum) pronoun/adjective. some, one, a certain one, something, a certain

sumne (sum) (3x) pronoun/adjective. some, one, a certain one, something, a certain

sundor (1x) adverb. apart, aloof, by oneself, separate, severally, each by themself, in a different manner

swa (9x) adverb/conjunction. so, as, likewise, thus, such, as if, as that,

swęsne (swęs) (1x) adjective. dear, beloved, or his own, one’s own,

sweotule (sweotole) adverb. clearly, evidently, openly, plainly, publically, without obstruction,

Swimmaš (1x) plural (swimman). swim, float, move on or over the water,

swiže (swiše) adverb. very, exceedingly, strongly, much fiercely,

symbla (symbel) neuter. banquet, feast, festival,






Til (1x) adjective. good, capable, competent, excellent, or neuter. goodness, fitness

to (13x) preposition/adverb. to, at, toward, from, or too, also, there, thereto

torn (1x) neuter/adjective. anger, grief, or angry, grief stricken, distressing, bitter, grievous, causing violent emotions

treowe (treow) feminine. truth, faith, fidelity, fealty, loyalty, agreement, pledge, treaty, the truth, one’s word, assurance of faith or truth,





**I did all of o first.  There were only two occurrences at the beginning of words--both the same word.**

šonne ( žonne)(2x) adverb/conjunction. then, when, since, than,


ža (3x) adverb/conjunction. then, when, since, because or feminine accusitive singula/masculine plural (se). them, her, it,

žam (žęm)(3x) dative masculine and plural (se). him, them

žas (žęs)(3x) masculine genitive singular (se). his, its

žęr (2x) adverb/conjunction. there, where, if,

žęt (žętt) (3x) conjunction. that, so that, in order that, in such a way that, until, because, or neuter nominative/accusative singular (se). it

že (9x) pronoun/conjunction. who, which, that, or when, where, than, , or dative/accusative (žu).you, thou

žeah (1x) adverb/conjunction. however, though, although, yet, nevertheless,

žeaw (1x) masculine. custom, usage, habit, conduct, disposition,

žeodnes (1x) genitive (žeoden). prince, ruler, chief, king, God, Christ, feminine. joining, suture, conjunction, association, society,

žes (1x) pronoun/adjective. this,

žinceš (ženceš) 3rd present (žincan/žencan). thinks, imagine, consider, think of, meditate, reason,

žis (žes) (2x) neuter singular pronoun. this,

žisne (3x) masculine accusative singular (žis). this,

žisse (1x) genitive plural (žis). this,

žonan (žanan/žanon) adverb. from that time or place, thence, away, whence, from which , of which or (žonan/žonan) thence/whence, then/thereupon,

žone (1x) masculine accusative singular (se). him, it,

žonne (šonne) (7x) adverb/conjunction. then, when, since, than,

žrag (1x) feminine. time, occasion, space of time, season, period, while,

žrym (žrymm) masculine. troop, crowd, multitude, host, or power, might, ability, violence, or majesty, splendor, glory,

žryže (žryp) feminine. force, might, strength, power or troop, multitude, host, or majesty glory, splendor,

žy  pronoun/conjunction/adverb. that or because, since on account of, therefore, then, or (žy/žon) any,






uhtna (uhta) masculine. dawn, early morning, that time just before daybreak,

under (2x) preposition/adverb. under, beneath, or among, before, in the presence of, under the shelter of,

us (1x) dative accusative pronoun. us








wac (1x) adjective. weak, slender, pliant, yielding, fluid, feeble, wanting of strength or courage,

wadan (1x) verb. to go, pass, proceed, advance, traverse

waldend (wealdend) (1x) masculine. leader, controller, ruler, lord, king, god or feminine. female ruler

wanhydig (wan-hydig) (1x) adjective. rash, reckless, foolish, imprudent, thoughtless, careless,

Waraš (1x) 3rd plural (warian). guard, hold, possess, take possession of, attend or be wary of, beware,

wat (3x) 1st/3rd present (witan). know(s)

wažema (wažem/wažum) (2x) genitive plural masculine. a wave, a billow, flood, stream, sea,

węlgifru (węl-gifre) (1x) adjective. greedy for slaughter, eager to slay,

węlsleahta (węl-sleahta/węl-slieht) (2x) masculine. slaughter, carnage, slaughter in battle,

wępen (1x) neuter. weapon, sword, arms,

węre (1x) subjunctive past plural (beon). would, ought to,

weal (weall) (1x) masculine. wall

weallas (weall) (1x) masculine. wall.

wealle (weall) (1x) masculine. wall.

wealsteal (weall-steall) masculine/neuter. wall-place, foundation, or a place where there are buildings

weg (1x) masculine. a way, path, route, road, a space to be traversed

wegas (1x) masculine. a way, path, route, road, a space to be traversed

Wel (1x) adverb. well, rightly, fully, very much, abundantly, very easily, quite,

wela (1x) masculine. wealth, weal, prosperity, happiness, riches,

weman (1x) verb. to comfort, console, persuade, lead astray, and to sound, be heard

wenede (1x) 3rd past (wenian). entertained, honored, treated, or trained, habituated, innured, accustomed.

weoruld feminine. world, humanity, way of life, life, age, long period of time, cycle, eternity,

weoržan (weoršan) (1x) verb. to become, happen, be, get , or be done, be made, or come to pass,

weoržeš (1x) 3rd present (weoržan). becomes, happens, is, is done, comes to pass

wer (1x) masculine. man, male being, husband, hero,

werig (1x) adjective. weary, tired, exhausted, miserable, sad, or unfortunate,

werigne (1x) accusative adjective (werig). weary, tired, exhausted, miserable, sad, or unfortunate,

weste (1x) adjective. waste, desolate, barren, uninhabited, deserted, empty,

wišstondan (wiš-standan) verb. to withstand, resist, oppose

wig (1x) neuter. war, combat, strife, contest, battle, or valor, military force, army

wiga (1x) masculine. warrior, fighter, or man

wille (2x) 3rd present (willan). wishes, is about to, will, is willing,

winde (1) dative masculine. wind

winedryhtnes (wine-dryhtnes) (1x) genitive masculine. friendly lord’s, lord and friend’s,

wineleas (wine-leas) (1x) adjective. friendless, lordless,

winemęga (wine-męga) plural genitive masculine. dear kinsmen’s,

winsalo (win-sęlu) (1x) nominative/accusative plural neuter. wine-hall,

wintercearig (winter-cearig) (1x) adjective. winter-grieving, winter sad, or (possibly) sad with years

wintra (1x) plural genitive neuter. winters’, or years’

wintres (1x) singular genitive neuter. winter’s

wis (1x) adjective. wise, learned, or sagacious, cunning or, sane, prudent, discreet, experienced

wise (1x) adverb. wisely, prudently, or feminine. manner, way, fashion, custom, habit,

wisse (wiste) (1x) 3rd past (witan). knew, understood, was conscious of, or guarded, kept

wiste (wisse) (1x) genitive masculine/feminine  food, feast or 3rd past (witan). knew, understood, was conscious of, or guarded, kept

Wita (1x) masculine. councilor, wise man, learned man, sage, philosopher, advisor, senator, elder

wlonc (wlanc) (1x) adjective. stately, splendid, rich, lofty, magnificent, or boastful, arrogant, proud, glorying in,

wod (1x) past singular (wadan). advanced, proceeded, traversed or adjective. senseless, mad, raging, blasphemous,

wolde (1x) varient (willan). to wish, will, be willing, be about to,

woma (1x) masculine. noise, howling, tumult, or terror, alarm,

won (wann) (1x) adjective. dark, dusky, lurid,

word (1x) neuter. word, speech, sentence, statement, command, order, subject of talk, story, news, report,

Woriaš (1x) plural present (worigan). crumble to pieces, totter, move around, or roam, wander,

worn (1x) masculine. large number, great many, multitude, number, troop, company, or progeny,

woruld (1x) feminine. world, humanity, way of life, life, age, long period of time, cycle, eternity,

worulde (woruld) (1x) feminine genitive, accusative, or dative singular or  nominative or accusative plural.  world, humanity, way of life, life, age, long period of time, cycle, eternity,

woruldrice (1x) neuter. earthly kingdom, world-realm, world, or adjective. having worldly riches or power,

wražra (wraž) (1x) adjective. wroth, furious, hostile, terrible, horrible, cruel, grievous, harsh, malignant, evil,

wręclast (wręc-last)(1x) masculine. path of exile,

wręclastas (1x) plural(wręc-last). paths of exile.

wulf (1x) masculine. wolf, or wolfish person, devil,

wunden (1x) past participle (windan). turned, moved, wound, twisted, brandished, wheeled, flew,

wundrum (1x) adverb. wonderfully, wondrously, strangely, or terribly,

Wyn (wynn) (1x) feminine. joy, delight, pleasure, rapture, gladness

wynnum. (1x) adverb. beautifully, joyfully, delightfully, pleasantly

Wyrd (2x) feminine. fate, chance, fortune, destiny, or Fate, The Fates,

wyrda (wyrd) (1x) feminine. fate, chance, fortune, destiny, or Fate, The Fates,

wyrde (wyrd) (1x) feminine. fate, chance, fortune, destiny, or Fate, The Fates, or (wyrde/word) neuter speech, conversation,

wyrmlicum (wyrm-lica)(1x) plural masculine. serpent images, serpent designs, forms of a serpent,





Yžde (iežde) (1x) 3rd past (iežan/yžan). devastated, laid waste to, ravaged, destroyed, or alleviated,




***For the glossary, I am principally indebted to the Boswell/Toller text.***

Bosworth, Joseph. and Northcote Toller. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary based on the         manuscript collections of the late Joseph Bosworth. (1898). Edited and Elarged by Northcote Toller. Oxford: Clarendon, 1954.

Northcote Toller. Supplement to an Anglo-Saxon Dictionary based on the manuscript collections of the late Joseph Bosworth. (1922) Oxford: Clarendon, 1955.

Diamond, Robert E. Old English Grammar and Reader. Detroit: Wayne State U P, 1970.

Hall, J.R. Clark. A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. (1960) 4th edition. Cambridge U P,  1996.

Moore, Samuel and Thomas A. Knott and James R. Hulbert. The Elements of Old English. 10th edition. Ann Arbor MI: George Wahr,  1977.


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