The Battle of Maldon Pages

Poetic Transcription My Translation Glossary Home Translation Explanation
Robert Diamond's Translation
Kevin Crossley -Holland's Translation
 Background on Poem
UVU Anglo-Saxon Pages


Glossary to the Poem      

adv. always, ever, at any time

Abead/Abeod/ Abeodan verb announce; offer

Abreoše (Abreošan) verb to unsettle, ruin, deteriorate

Ac  conj. but, yet

Acwehte (Acwešan) verb to say, utter, declare, speak, moan in grief

Ęfre adv. ever, at any time.

Ęfter prep.  after, according to, along, on, through about

Ęfter, adv. afterwards, after, then

Ęgšer pron. either, both, each one

Ęghwylc pron. each (one), everyone      

Ęlfere proper name Elf-army

Ęlfnoš proper name Elf-bold

Ęlfric proper name Elf-strong

Ęlfwine proper name Elf-friend

Ęnig pron. any, by any means

Ęr/Ęrest/ Ęrost  adv., conj., and prep. before, sooner earlier, formerly, already

Ęręnde noun errand

Ęrndon (Ęrnan) verb to run away, ride, flee

Ęsc noun ash, made of ash usually a spear

Ęscferš proper name spear-mind

Ęschere noun naval force

Ęscholt noun ash-wood meaning spear

Ęses noun meat, carrion

Ęt prep.and noun at, to, before, with, in, for, near, against, food or eating

Ętforan prep. before, in front of

Ęžele/ Ęželan adj. noble, excellent, famous

Ęželgar proper name Noble-spear

Ęželo noun lineage, ancestry

Ęželred proper name Noble-counsel

Ęžeric proper name Noble-strong

Ętterne/Ęttrynne  adj. deadly, poisonous 

Ętwitan verb to reproach, taunt        

Afeallen verb to fall down, fall in battle

Aflymde verb to put to flight, scatter

Afysan verb to hasten, inspire, with longing

Agan/ Ah/ Ahte verb own, possess, have

Ageaf/ Agyfen verb to give, give back, give up

Ahafen/ Ahof/ Ahofon (Ahafennes) verb rise up, lifting, elevation    

Alyfan verb to give leave, allow, yield

Amyrde (amrydian) verb to injure

Ana adj. Alone, one, only, sole, singular, singular, solitary, a certain one

And conj. And    

Andsware/ Andswaru noun answer

Angin noun beginning, intention, design

Anne noun one, oneness

Anręd adj. resolute, one mind, unanimous   

Ar noun  messenger, honor    

Asęde (Sacgan)verb to say, said, spoke
Asceoc (Ascian) verb to ask, inquire


Bana noun killer, slayer

Bęc noun back

Będ/ Będon (bidden) verb to beg, ask, pray

Bęron verb to bare, carry

Bęrst verb to break, burst

Be prep. by, near, upon

Beaduręs noun rush of battle        

Beaduwe noun battle, war       

Beag/ Beagas noun ring, bracelet

Beahgifa/ Beahgifan noun ring-giver, lord

Bealdlice adv. boldly, bravely

Bealdlicost adv. boldest

Bearn noun a child (usually a son)

Becomon/ Becuman verb to come, arrive

Begen both

Bence noun bench        

Beon verb to be, exist

Beorn/ Beornas/Beornum noun man, warrior, nobleman, chief

Beot/ Beotode noun  boast, vow, threat, command, menace, vow

Beran/ Beron verb to bear, carry, take away        

Bestandan/ Bestodon verb to beset, stand around, surround

Beswicene noun deceit, snare, treachery

Betera/ Betere adj. Better

Big preposition by, near, on, next to

Bill/ Billum noun chopper, battle-axe

Biter adj. bitter, sharp, cutting

Bitere adv. bitterly, sharply

Bližra adj. happy, glad, cheerful

Blodig/ Blodigne adj. bloody

Boda noun messenger, herald

Bogan verb to boast

Bord/ Bordum noun board, plank, usually refers to shield boards

Borda noun ornament, embroidry

Bordweall noun shield wall, the front line of shields        

Brad adj.  broad, open, flat

Bradswurd noun broadsword

Bręc verb broke/broken

Bręd (Bręgdon) verb to move quickly, pull, draw, change, be changed

Breost/ Breostrum noun breast, torso

Bricge noun bridge, causeway

Bricgweardas noun defender of the bridge

Brimližendra (Brimližend)/ Brimmanna/ Brimmen noun sea-fairer, pirate

Brocen adj. broken, hurt

Brošor/ Brošru noun brother        

Bruneccg adj. with gleaming blade

Bugan/ Bugon verb to bow, bow down, turn, bend

Burh/ Burg noun fortress, dwelling, town

Butan adv. outside, without

Buton prep. out of, around, outside

Buržene noun chamberlain, page

Bylde (Byldan) verb to encourage, embolden

Byre noun child, son, youth

Byrhtelm proper name bright-protector

Byrhtnoš proper name bright-boldness

Byrhtwold proper name bright-powerfull

Byrnan verb to burn, give light

Byrne noun corselet, mail shirt, body armor

Bysige noun business         

Caflice adv. promptly, vigorously

Cafne (Caf) noun prompt, vigorous

Cald adj. cold

Ceallian verb to call, shout  

Cellod adj. round, hollow, embossed

Cempa noun warrior, champion

Cene/ Cenre adj. bold, brave, fierce, keen

Ceolan (Ceol) proper name sea-fairer

Ceorl/ Ceorle verb churl, layman, peasant

Clufon verb to cleave, split, seperate

Clypode (Clipian) verb to call out, shout

Cniht noun servant, youth, retainer

Com/ Cumen (Cumin) to come

Crincgan/ Cruncon verb to yield, fall in battle  

Cunnian verb to seek, search, try, experience

Cwęš (Cwešan) verb to name, speak, declare, proclaim

Cynne/ Cynnes (Cynn) adj. kind, rank, sort, quality

Cyrm noun noise, cry, sound

Daroš noun dart, spear, javelin

Dęg noun day        

Dęgweorces  noun literally day work, the work done in a day or set time       

Dęlon (Dęlan) verb to separate, divide, share, divide

Deag/Deah (Dugan) verb to be worth, to be capable of

Denon (Dene) noun Danes, Vikings from Denmark

Derian verb to damage, injure, hurt
Dom noun doom, fate, judgment, law

Drenga/ Dreng noun youth, warrior

Drihten noun lord, king, prince, title used for God/Christ

Duguže noun multitude, troops, army, men, nobles, all who have reached manhood     

Dunnere proper name dark-army

Dyde (Don) verb to do

Eac adv. also, moreover, likewise

Eadric proper name fortunate-strong

Eadweard proper name Edward, fortunate-guardian

Eadwold proper name fortunate-powerful    

Eald adj. old, aged, ancient, antique

Ealda noun old man, chief, elder

Ealde noun men

Ealdor/ Ealdre/Ealdres noun elder, parent, religious authority, lord in the civic sense

Ealdorman noun alderman, chief, prince, man of the highest rank         

Ealhelm proper name Temple-protector

Eall/ Ealle/ Eallum/ Ealra adj. all, every, whole, entire, all men

Eard noun native place, country, region, dwelling place

Earh adj. sluggish, cowardly, unjustly

Earm noun arm  

Earn noun eagle

Eart (Wesan) verb to be, happen

Easteše noun riverbank        

Eastseaxena noun East Saxons, people from Essex area

Ebban verb to ebb with tidal flow

Ecg noun edge, point, weapon, sword, axe

Ecgaf proper name Edge-survivor

Efston (Efestan) verb to hasten, hurry

Eft adv. again, anew, a second time, back, over

Ellen noun zeal, strength, courage

Embe (Ymbe) prep. around, about, at, near, along

Engla noun angle, messenger

Eode/ Eodon (Gan) verb to go          

Eoh noun yew-tree

Eom (Wesan) verb to be, happen

Eorl/ Eorle/ Eorles noun brave man, warrior, leader, chief

Eornoste noun earnestness, seriousness, zeal

Eoržan/ Eoršan (Eorš) noun earth, ground, dirt  

Eow pron. you, to you

Ežel noun country, native land, ancestral home

Fęder noun father, male ancestor

Fęge adj. fey, fated, doomed, acceptable, popular with

Fęgean/ Fęges verb to be fated, doomed

Fęgere adj. fair, lovely, beautiful

Fęhše noun hostility, enmity, violence, revenge

Fęrsceašan noun enemy

Fęste adj. fast, firmly, securely,

Fęsten noun fastness, fortress, stronghold, cloister

Fęstlice adv. steadily, quickly, firmly, certainly

Fęstnian verb to fasten, secure, bind, hold

Faran verb to set forth, travel, wander, proceed

Feaht (Feohtan) verb to fight, combat, strive, attack  

Feallan/ Feoll/ Feollon verb to fall headlong, die, decay

Fealohilte adj. yellow hilted

Fela adj. many, much, very many

Felda noun field, open land, tillable land

Feng (Fon) verb to seize, catch, grasp noun handle, hilt, grip

Feoh noun riches, treasure, cattle, money

Feohtan verb to fight, strive, combat

Feohte noun fight, combat, war, battle

Feol noun file  

Feolhearde adj. file hardened, hard as a file

Feondum (Feond) noun foe, adversary, enemy

Feor comparative far, remote, distant

Feorh/  Feore/ Feores noun soul, life, life force

Feorhhus noun body, soul house          

Feran verb to come, set out, march travel

Ferian verb to carry, convey, bring

Fežan verb to go on foot

Flan/ Flanes noun deceit, treachery, barb, arrow, javelin, dart

Fleam/ Fleame noun flight

Fleogan/ Flugon verb to take flight  

Fleon verb to flee

Flod noun flood, mass of water, flow, tide

Flot noun sea, large body of water

Flotan (Flota) noun floater, sailor, crew, ship, boat

Flowende adj. flowing

Flyht noun flight

Folc/ Folce/ Folces noun people, nation, army

Foldan (Folde) earth, ground, soil, dirt

Folman (Folme) palm, hand

For con.j/prep. For

Forbeah (Forbugan) verb to flee, avoid

Ford/ Forda noun ford, water crossing

Forgeaf verb to forgive, overlook, grant, allow

Forgyldon verb to pay for

Forheardne adj. very hard

Forheawen verb to cut down, hew, cut into pieces

Forhogode (Forhycgan) verb to disdain, despise, reject

Forhtedon adj afraid, timidly, cowardly,

Forlet/ Forlętan verb to let go, relinquish, surrender, loose

Forman (Forma) adj. first, earliest

Formoni (Formanig) adj. very many

Forš adv. forth, forward, advance

Foržan adv. forthwith

Foršgeorn adj. eager to advance

Forwegen verb to kill

Fotes/ Fotum (Fot) noun foot (both body part and unit of distance)

Fotmęl noun foot-measure, a distance of foot

Fram prep. from, since

Francan noun lance, javelin

Frean (Frea) noun lord

Freode (Freogan) verb to free, liberate

Friš/ Friže/ Frižes noun peace, tranquility,

Frod adj. wise, old

Frymdi adj. curious, inquisitive

Frynd noun friend, relative

Ful adj. foul, unclean, impure

Full adj. full, filled, complete, whole

Fundon (Findan) verb find, meet with, discover, seek for

Furšor adv. further, more distance

Fus adj. striving for, eager to, ready for

Fyl noun fall, death, slaughter

Fylstan verb to aid, support, help, protect

Fynd (Feond) noun fiend, enemy, the devil

Fyrde noun national levy, army, military expedition

Fyrdrinc noun warrior, soldier         

Fyrmest adv. first of all, foremost

Fysde (Fysan) verb to hasten, impel, urge

Gaddes proper name Comrade

Gafole/ Gofole noun tax, duty, debt

Gan/ Gangan/ Gangon verb to go, proceed, travel

Gar/ Gare/ Garas noun spear, dart, javelin

Garberend noun warrior

Garrę noun battle

Gaste noun breath, spirit, life, soul

Gaš (Gan) verb to go

Ge conj. and, also

Ge prefix the pretarite (past tense) added to a verb

Gealgean (Elgean) verb to defend

Gearo/ Gearowe adj. prepared, ready, equipped

Gebad (Biddan) verb to pray, ask, entreat

Gebeorge (Beorge) verb to defend, protect, save

Gebręc (Brecan) verb to break

Gebrožru noun brother

Gecampe noun battle, combat

Geceas (Ceosan) verb to choose

Gecranc (Cringan) verb to fall in battle

Gecwęš (Cwęžan) verb to say, speak

Gecyžan (Cyžan) verb to make known, show, proclaim

Gedon (Dyde) verb to arrive at, get to, bring about, effect

Geearnunga noun favor

Gefecgan (Feccan) verb to fetch, retrieve

Gefeohtan/ Gefeohte (Feohtan) verb to fight, gain by fighting

Gefera/ Geferan (Feran) verb to go, set out, march, travel          

Geforžod (Foržian) verb to carry out, perform

Gegangan (Geong) verb go, walk, happen, obtain

Gegremod (Gremian) verb to get angry, enraged

Gegrundene (Grindan) verb to grind, sharpen

Gehate/ Gehet (Hatan) verb to call, command, name, be called, promise

Gehealdan (Healdan) verb to hold, grasp, maintain, keep

Gehende adj. and adv. at hand, near

Gehleop (Hleapen) verb to hop on, mount

Gehlyston (Hlystan) verb to listen, listen to

Gehwęšere pron. either, each, both

Gehwylc pron. any, each, either

Gehyrde/ Gehyrst (Hieran) verb to hear, obey

Gelęstan/ Gelęste (Lęstan) verb to serve, standby, perform, carry out

Gelette (Lętan) verb to hinder, prevent

Gemęlde (Męlan) verb to speak, discourse

Gemanode (Manian) verb to exhort, urge, impel

Gemot (Mot) noun assembly, court, council, encounter

Gemunan/ Gemunde/ Gemundon (Munan) verb to remember, recall

Gename (Niman) verb to take, seize, get, carry off

Geneat noun comrade, companion, retainer        

Genehe adv. enough, very much, often

Geong/ Geonga adj. young

Georn/ Georne/ Geornful/ Geornlice adj. eagerly, zealously, earnestly  

Gerędest/ Gerędum (Rędde) verb to decide, determine         

Geręhte (Ręhtan) to reach, hit, offer

Gerenod  adj. adorned, ornamented

Gerymed (Ryman) verb to extend, enlarge, make room for, clear away

Gesęde (Sacgan) verb to say, speak

Gesawon (Seon) verb to see, perceive

Gesealde/ Gesealdon (Sellan) verb to give up, hand over

Gesecan/ Gesohte (Sohte) verb to seek, visit

Geseman (Seman) verb to settle, reconcile, make peace
Gestandan (Standan) verb to stand, remain, stop

Gesyrwed (Sierwan) verb to plan, devise, contrive, arm, equip, plot

Getohte noun battle, conflict, campaign   

Getrymmed (Trymmian) verb to prepare, strengthen, encourage, exhort

Gežanc/ Gežancie (Žancian) verb to thank, give recompense, reward

Gežolian (Žolian) verb endure, tolerate, hold out, suffer

Gežrange noun crowd, throng

Geunne (Unnan) verb to grant, allow, bestow, give

Gewat (Witan) verb to know, understand, perceive, reproach, depart, let go

Geweald noun control, power, authority, dominion

Gewinn/ Gewinnan/ Gewinne (Winnan) verb to strive, contend, gain by fighting

Gewod (Wadan) verb to go, advance, proceed, traverse

Gewrecan (Wrecan) verb to drive, drive out, avenge

Gewundod (Wundian) verb to wound, hurt

Gewyrcan (Wyrcan) verb to work, build, make, bring about

Gif/ Gyf conj. if, however

Gnornian verb to be sad, lament, mourn, grieve, complain

God/ Gode/ Godes/ Godan/ Godum comp. Good, desirous, favorable

Godric proper name God-strong

Godswurd noun good sword

Godwig proper name God-war

Godwine proper name God-friend

Golde noun/adj. Gold

Gram/ Gramum/ Grame noun anger, fierce, mad         

Greote noun grit, sand, earth

Grim adj. fierce, savage, desire

Griš noun truce, peace, protection

Grund noun ground, foundation, bottom

Gryreleoša noun terrible song

Guman (Guma) noun man, lord, her

Guže/ Guše noun combat, war, battle

Gušplega noun attack, battle

Gušrinc noun warrior, hero

Gylpwordum noun boasting words

Gymdon (Giemian) verb to care for, care about, heal

Gysel noun hostage

Gystas noun guest, stranger

Gyt (Geotan) verb to pour, pour forth, shed

Habban/ Hęfš/ Hęfde/ Hafast/  verb
to have

Hęleš/ Hęleša noun man, hero, fighter

Hęžene/ Hęšene noun heathen

Hafenode (Hafenian) verb to lift, raise

Hafoc noun hawk

Hale adj. hale, whole, well

Hals noun neck

Ham/ Hame noun home, village, manor, dwelling

Hand/ Handa/ Handon/ Handum noun hand, forearm

Har adj. Hoar, hoary, gray, old

Haten/ Het/ Heton verb to command, direct, order

He/ Hi pron. he, she, they, it

Healdan/ Heoldon verb to hold, fasten, grip, retain

Healfe noun half

Healle noun hall, house, dwelling

Heanlic adv. poor, abject

Heard/ Heardes adj. hard, harsh, severe, stern

Hearde/ Heardlice/ Heardra adv. hardly, firmly, sternly

Heardne adj. hardness

Hearma noun harm, injury, evil

Helsceašan noun hell foe, devil

Heofenum noun heavens

Heonon/ Hine adv. hence, from here, away

Heoršgeneatas noun retainer         

Heoršwerod noun body of retainers

Heorra noun hinge

Heortan verb encourage, revive, enliven

Heorte adj. high minded, stout hearted

Heow/ Heowon verb to hew, cut         

Her adv. here, in this place

Here noun host, enemy army, troops

Heregeatu noun war gear, military equipment

Hicgan verb to think, meditate

Hider adv. hither, on this side

Hige noun thought, mind, courage

Hilde noun war, combat

Hilderinc noun warrior, hero

Him pron. him

Hiredmen noun retainer, follower

His pron. his

Hit pron. it

Hlaford/ Hlaforde noun lord, master, ruler

Hlafordleas adj. lord-less        

Hleo noun covering, refuge, shelter, defense

Hloh (Hliehhan) verb to laugh, laugh at, deride joy

Hogode/ Hogodon (Hogian) verb to care for, think about, reflect upon

Holdost (Hold)  adj. gracious, kind, favorable, loyal

Holtes (Holt) noun forest, wood, thicket        

Hors noun horse

Hream noun noise, outcry, alarm, sound

Hremmas (Hręfnas) noun ravens

Hringas noun rings, links of chain, rings of gold, anything circular

Hringlocan noun coat of ring mail         

Hu adv. how

Hwa interrogatory pron. who, what

Hwęne/ Hwęnne adv. when, sometimes

Hwęt adv. where, wherefore, what

Hwile adv. while, time

Hwilon adv. while, sometimes, once

Hynan/ Hynde verb humiliate, bend low, bring down

Hyra noun follower, mercenary, servant, hireling

Hyra (Hi, Heo) pron. they

Hyse/ Hysas/ Hyssa/ Hyssas noun young warrior, son, youth

Ic pron. I

In prep. in, around, at, near

Iren noun iron, iron sword

Is verb is

Lędan verb lead, guide, conduct, carry

Lęrde (Lęren) verb to teach, instruct, guide, advise

Lęrig noun border or cover of a shield

Lagustreamas noun water, sea, ocean, literally flood streams

Lande/ Landes noun land, country, earth, soil, district, territory

Lang/ Langa adj. long, tall

Laše/ Lažre adj. hated, hostile, loath

Lažere (Lažian) verb to invite, summon, ask

Leng noun length, height   

Leoda/ Leodon/ Leodum noun man, fellow countryman, compatriot, chief, prince

Leofan/ Leofne/ Leofost (Leof) adj. dearly, beloved, precious

Leofsunu proper name Beloved-son

Let/ Leton (Lętan) verb let, to allow, give leave

Licgan/ Lęg/ Lęge/ Lagon/ Leg/ Liš/ Ligeš verb to lay, be at rest, lie low  

Lidmanna/ Lidmen noun sea-fairer, sailor, pirate

Lif noun life, existence, lifetime

Linde noun linden tree, linden wood, a common term for a shield

Lihte (Lihtan) verb to make light, easy, relieve, alleviate, alight, dismount

Lucon verb to lock, close, enclose, fasten, shut up

Lysan verb to release, redeem

Lytegian verb to fain, act crookedly, deceitfully

Lytlaš (Lytlian) to decrees, lessen, grow less

Ma adv. More, rather, longer, hereafter, longer

Maccus proper name Hammer of Gaelic origins

Męg verb (Magan) to be allowed, have permission or power, may

Męge noun male kinsmen  

Męgen noun might, strength, power

Męla noun mark, sign, crucifix, stain, sword, measure, time

Męlde noun proclamation

Męnig/ Męnigne/ Manega/ Manigne adj.many

Męst/ Męste adj. most, very much, great

Męš noun measure, rate, degree, proportion, honor

Man/ Manna/ Men pron. man, people, they

Manian verb to remind, admonish, exhort, warn

Mare adj. more, greater, stronger, increase          

Maželode (Maželian) verb to harangue, speak, discourse

Me pron. me

Mear/ Meare noun horse, stead  

Mece noun sword, blade

Meodo noun mead (a drink made with honey, typically alcoholic)

Meželstede noun place of meeting, battlefield

Metod/ Metode noun fate, creator, literally measurer

Miccle/ Miccles/ Myrcon noun Mercians

Mid prep. with, together

Mihte noun might, power, authority

Milde adj. mild, gentle, kindness

Min/ Mine/ Mines/ Minne/ Minum pron. mine

Mod noun heart, mind, courage, though

Modi/Modige adj. spirited, bold, brave

Modiglice adv. high spirited, lofty proud, brave, magnificent

Most/ Moste/ Moston/ Mote/ Moton (Motan) verb to be allowed, able to, opportunity

Murnan/ 0Murnon verb to care, be anxious about, hesitate, mourn

Na/ Nęs/ Ne adv. no, not, never, by no means

Nama noun name, reputation

Neh adj. near, close to

Nelle/ Nolde/ Noldon (Nyllan) verb to be unwilling, refuse, prevent

Neotan verb to use, have use of, enjoy, employ

Niman verb to take, assume, undertake, accept, receive, occupy, approach, bear, carry

Noršhymbron noun Northumbria

Nu adv. now, at present, this time

Oddan proper name Spear-point probably Scandinavian in origin

Of prep. of, from, out, among

Ofer  prep. over, above, upon, in, across, past

Ofermode noun  pride, insolence

Offa/ Offan proper name the name of an Anglo-Saxon king, but with unknown meaning

Ofre noun riverbank, seashore

Ofsceat (Ofsceatian) verb to shoot down, hit, kill

Ofstlice adv. hastily, speedily, zealously

Oft adv. often, frequently

On prep. on, upon, among, in, during, at

Oncnawan/ Oncwęš verb to understand, know, perceive, acknowledge, disclose, confess

Onemn prep. abreast, alongside, near, during

Onfeng (Onfon) verb to take, accept, receive, sponsor

Onfunde (Onfundeles) noun experience

Ongan verb to approach, enter into

Ongean prep towards, against, opposite, contrary

Ongeaton (Ongeatan) verb to perceive, understand, make out

Ongunnon (Onginnen) verb to begin, undertake

Ord/ Orde noun point, spear-point, source, beginning         

Oswold proper name God-powerful

Ošer/ Ožer/ Ožerne/ Ošrum/ Ožrum pron. and adj. other, alternate, next

Ošžęt/ Ošše conj. until, either   

Pantan (Pant) noun the Old English name of the Blackwater river

Prasse noun noise tumult

Rad noun ride, expedition, journey, reckoning, account    

Rędde (Rędan) to advise, council, consult, deliberate

Randas noun border or edge of shield

Raže/ Raše adv. hastily, quickly, promptly, immediately

Reaf noun plunder, booty, spoil, armor, vestment

Ricene adv. quickly  

Ricost (Ricsian) verb to rule, reign

Ridan verb to ride, move about

Riht/ Rihte noun right, due straight, just, precise   

Rincum (Rinc) noun man, warrior

Rohton (Reccan) verb to care about, trouble with


Sęde/ Secg/ Secgan/ Secgas verb to say, speak

Sęlida/ Sęlidan/ Sęmannum/ Sęmen/ Sęrinc noun sea-fairer, sailor, pirate

Sang (Singan) verb to sing

Sawul noun soul, spirit, life-force

Sceaf (Scufan) verb to shove, thrust, push

Sceaft noun shaft, pole

Sceal/ Sceolde/ Sceoldon/ Sceole/ Sceolon/ Sege/ Segeš/ Sohton (Sculan) verb to be, shall, have, must, obliged

Scealcas noun servant, soldier, retainer, subject

Sceat/ Sceattum noun wealth, treasure, coin, property, payment        

Sceše (Scešan) verb to scathe, injure, hurt, harm, crush

Scir noun office, authority, appointment, charge

Scylde/ Scyldas noun offence, fault, crime, guilt

Scyldburh noun shield fortress, shieldwall  

Scype noun ship

Se/ Seo pron. he, she, it, that, they

Sealde/ Syllan/ Syllon (Sellan) verb to give, supply, lend

Sendan/ Sende/ Sendon verb to send, cast

Sibyrhtes proper name Victory-bright

Sinc noun jewel, riches, treasure, valuables

Sincgyfan noun giver of treasure, lord, chief, ruler

Sišian/ Sišie verb to depart, travel, wander

Sloge/ Sloh (Slean) verb to strike, beat, stamp, throw, cast
Snelle adj. smart, ready, keen, fresh

Softe adj. soft, mild, gentle, quiet        

Spedaž noun prosperity, success, luck

Spell noun narrative, story, history, fable

Spere/ Speru noun spear, javelin, lance

Spillan noun to kill, destroy, mutilate

Spręc/ Spręcon noun language, speech, discourse, narrative

Sprang (Springan) verb to jump, spring, leap, burst

Sprengde verb to scatter, strew, sprinkle, sow

Stędefęste/ Stedefęste adj. steadfast, steady, firm

Stęše noun shore, riverbank

Standan/ Stod/ Stodon/ Stynt verb to stand, occupy, stand firm, remain

Stang (Stingan) verb to sting, stab, pierce, thrust, push through

Stede noun place, site, position, station

Stemnetton (Stefneton) verb to stand firm

Stihte (Stihtan) verb to rule, direct, arrange, order, command

Stiš adj. stiff, thick, ridged, hard, strong

Stišhicgende adj. determined, resolute, brave, stern

Stišlice adv. forcibly, stoutly

Stop (Steppan) verb to advance, go forward, march

Stream noun stream, flood, current, river

Stunde noun short space of time, moment, period of time

Sturmere proper name a name after a river in the Essex region

Sum/ Sume pron. some, something, about

Sunu noun son, male descendant

Sužerne adj. southern, southerly  

Swa adv. and conj. so, consequently, this way, that way

Sweltan verb to die, perish

Swenges noun blow, stroke, cut  

Swiše adv. very much, exceedingly, severely, violently, fiercely

Swurd/ Swurde noun sword       

Swuster noun sister

Sy (Beon) verb are

Sylfra noun silver

Tęhte (Tęcan) verb to teach, show, declare, demonstrate

Tęsde (Tęsan) verb to pull, tear, comb, wound, injure, assault

Tid noun time, period, season, hour, while, feast-day

Tir noun fame, glory, honor, ornament

To prep. to, into, abreast of

Tobęrst (Tobarstan) verb to burst apart, shatter

Tobrocen verb to break into pieces, break up, shatter, destroy          

Togędere adv. together

Totwęmed verb to separate, divide, dissever, distinguish, break up

Trym adj. trim, firm, hard, solid

Trymedon/ Trymian verb to fortify, make strong, trim up

Twega/ Twegen number two, twain, twice as long


Ša/ Ža adj. and conj. then, at that time, when, after, thereupon

Šęr/ Žęr/ Žęra/ Žęre adj. and conj. there, thither, yonder, where, whither, when, though

Šęs/ Žęs/ Žas adv. afterwards, thence, accordingly, therefore, because, wherefore

Žęt/ Žat adj. And conj. that, so that, in order that, then, thence

Šam/ Žam adv. thereon, therein, in addition

Žanc noun thought, reflection, sentiment, idea, mind, will, purpose

Že pron. and conj. that, who, which, when, where,

Šeah adv. and conj. through, although, even if, that, however, nevertheless

Šearfe/ Žearf/ Žearfe noun need, necessity, want

Žearle adj. vigorous, strong, sever, strict, harsh, violent, heavy, excessive

Žegen/ Žegenas noun thane, retainer, leader, chief

Šegenlice adv., nobly, bravely, loyally

Žence/ Ženceš (Žencan) verb to think, reflect upon

Šeod/  Šeoda noun people, nation, tribe

Žeode/ Šeode noun language of a people or nation

Šeodne/ Žeoden/ Šeoden noun king, prince, chief, ruler of a people or nation

Žin/ Žine/ Žinum adj. and pron. thine

Žinceš/ Žuhte verb to appear, seem, think

Žis/ Žisne/ Šisse pron. this, before this, formerly

Žolian verb to suffer, undergo, endure

Šone/ Žone/ Žon/ Žonne adv. then, now, thence

Žreora number three

Žu pron. thou

Žurfe/ Žurfon verb to need, be required, must have, be under obligation

Žurh prep. through, by means of, in consequence

Žurhwod (Žurhwadan) verb to penetrate, pierce, thrust through

Žurstanes proper name Thor-stone

Žus adv. thus, in this way, as follows

Žysne (Žis) pron. this

Unbefohtene adj. unopposed, unattacked

Unearge adj. un-cowardly, dauntless, bold, brave

Unforcuš adj. reputable, good, noble, honorable, brave

Unforhte adj. fearless, bold

Unorne adj. old, worn out, decrepit  

Unwaclice adj. steadfast, strong, noble, splendid

Unweaxen adj. not grown up, young

Up adv. up, upstream, up country

Upgang adj. and noun rising, going up, sunrise

Ure/ Urne/ Urum pron. our

Us pron. us

Ut adv. out, outside

Wacian verb to be awake, watch, keep awake or to be weak, waver, languish, flinch, be cowardly

Wacne noun weakness, insignificance

Wadan/ Wodon verb to go, move, stride, advance

Węl/ Węle noun slaughter, carnage, or water, well, pool

Węlręste noun deadly onslaught

Węlspere noun deadly spear

Węlstowe noun place of slaughter, battlefield

Węlwulfas noun warrior, cannibal

Wępen/ Wępna/ Wępne/ Wępnes/ Wępnum noun weapon, sword

Węre/ Węron noun male being, man, husband, monetary value equal to a man’s station

Węs (Wesan) verb to be, happen, strive contend

Węter/ Wętere noun water, sea         

Wagon (Wegan) verb to carry, support, bear, bring, move, weigh

Waldend noun leader, ruler, controller, lord, king

Wand/ Windan/ Wundon verb to wind, plait, curl, twist, swing, brandish

Wandian/ Wandode verb to hesitate, desist from, neglect

Wat (Witan) verb to be aware, know, understand, observe, perceive

We pron. we

Wealdan verb to wield, rule, control, direct, govern, posses

Wearš (Weoršan) verb to become, get, be done, made

Wendan/ Wendon verb to turn, direct, wend one’s way, change

Wende (Wenan) verb to fancy, imagine, believe, think

Werige adj. weary, tired, exhausted, miserable  

Werod/ Werode noun thong, crowd, army, troop, legion

West adv. west, westerly

Wicge noun horse

Wicing/ Wicinga/ Wicingas/ Wicingum noun Viking, pirate

Wiš prep. with, by, near, against, through

Wiga noun fighter, man

Wigan verb to fight, strive, conflict

Wige noun war, strife, conflict

Wigelines proper name War-protector

Wigend/ Wigena/ Wiges noun warrior, fighter

Wigheardne adj. brave in battle        

Wigplegan noun war-play, battle

Wihagan noun war-edge, phalanx

Wile/ Willaš/ Willaž/ Wille/ Wolde/ Woldon/ Wylle (Willan) verb to be wishing, will, desire

Winas (Winn) noun labor, toil, strife, war, conflict, enemy

Wine noun lord, protector, friend

Winedrihten noun friendly lord, lord and friend

Winemagas noun dear kinsman

Wintrum (Wintre) noun winter

Wis adj. wise, learned, cunning, discreet, experienced, sagacious

Wisode (Wisian) verb to instruct, teach, lead, direct, guide

Wistan proper name War-stone

Wiste (Witan) verb to guard, keep, look after, be ascribe to, reproach, accuse,

Wižerlean noun requital, compensation

Wlancan/ Wlance/ Wlancne verb to become lukewarm, be tepid

Wlat (Wlitan) verb to gaze, look, observe

Wod adj. senseless, mad, raging

Word/ Wordon/ Wordum noun word, speech, statement, command, order

Worulde noun world, age of men, humanity

Woruldgesęlig adj. prosperous

Wręce noun misery, persecution, vengeance, exile

Wrec/ Wrecan verb to drive, push forward, advance, impel

Wudu noun wood, forest, grove, cross

Wulfmęr proper name Wolf-illustrious

Wulfstan/ Wulfstane/ Wulfstanes proper name Wolf-stone

Wund/ Wunde/ Wundum noun wound, sore, ulcer

Wurde noun word

Wuršlice adj. worthy, honorable

Wynna noun joy, rapture, pleasure

Wyrcan verb to prepare, form, do, make, work

Wyrnde (Wiernan) verb to refuse, prevent, withhold, hinder

Yfeles adj. evil, wicked, wretched

Ymbe prep. around, about, upon, near, along

Yrhšo noun cowardice, remissness, sloth

Yrre adj. and noun anger, wandering, depraved, perverse