The Wife's Lament Pages

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Glossary to the Poem        


ā:  always, forever

ābīdan:  await

āctrēo(actreow):   oaktree

āhte (āgan):   had, owned, possessed

āna (ān):  only, alone, one, a single, the same, a certain

aweaxan:  grow up, arise


fre:   ever

rest:   first

t:   at, from, by, with respect to



ġebād (gebidan):  wait, wait for, experience, endure, suffer

ġebro (ġebre): conduct, demeanor, gesture, cry, behavior, manner, bearing

bearwe (bearu):   grove, wood

beflōwen:   flow around

beġeat (begietan):  seize, happen, acquire

behrīmed (behriman):  frost-covered

bēotedan (beotian):  vowed, promised, boasted

beweaxne (beweaxan):  grown over

bi:   by, about, along, with, according to

bitre (biter):   bitter, cruel

bi (beon):   is, shall be

blīe:   cheerful, friendly, agreeable, gentle, happy

brēostċeare (breostcearu):  sorrow, grief

brērum (brer):  briars, thorn bushes

burgtūnas (burgtun):  city-dwellings, manor enclosures, towns, fortified city enclosures



đā:  when

:   day

ġedlde (ġedlan):  divide, share, distribute, dispense, part, separate

dēa:   death

dena (denu):   valley

dimme (dimm):   gloomy, dark

ġedreag:  multitude, tumult, essembly

drēogan, drēoge:   perform, commit, experience, endure

drēorsele:   dreary hall, bloody dwelling, cruel house

dūna (dun):   hill, mountain, moor

dyrne:   hidden, secret, evil, magical



ēac:   also, likewise, moreover, in addition to

eal (eall):   all, entirely, each

eald:   old, ancient, senior

ealdes:  formerly

ealles (eall):   adj: all; ealles adv: entirely, wholly, altogether

eft:  afterwards, again, anew thereupon, then, back

elles:   else, besides, otherwise

eom:   am


eoran (eore):   earth, ground, world

eorscrafu, eorscrfe (eorscrf):   earthen cave, earth-hovel, grave

eorsele:   earth-dwelling, earthen hall



fāh:   spotted, stained, gleaming; hostile, outlawed, guilty, criminal; foe, enemy

fhe (fhu):   enmity, feud

fela:   many

felalēofan (felalēofa, felalēof):   dearly beloved, much-loved

feor:   far, long ago

feorres (feorr):   far, distant

fēran:   go, travel, depart, journey

folclondes (folclond):   tribal land, land of a people, native land, nation

folga:  body of retainers, retinue; service, office, employment, authority

for:   for, on account of, because of, instead of, in spite of, with respect to, in comparison             to, before, in the presence of

for on (for ām):  therefore, and so

frēan (frēa):   lord, ruler, master

frēond:   friend, lover, loved one

frēonda:  friends, lovers, loved ones

frēondscipe:   friendship, love, marital love

fromsī:   departure, journey away

ful:   full, very

funde (findan):   found



ġe:   and, both

ġiedd:   song, poem, tale

gonge (gongan):   go, walk



habban:   have, hold

hfde:   had, held

hē:   he, himself, it

heard:   hard, tough, bold, violent, severe

heardsliġne (heardsliġ):   unfortunate, unhappy

heht:   commanded, bid, called, named, was called, promised

heonan:   hence, from here

heortan (heorte):   heart

hēr:   here

herheard:   dwelling in woods or grove or pagan temple, residence in a pagan shrine

hēt:   commanded, bid, called, named, promised, was called

him:   him, it, himself

his:   his, of himself

hit:   it

hlāford:   lord

holdra (hold):   trusty, friendly, gracious, loyal

hwr:   where

hwt (hwa):   who, what, any, anyone, anything, someone

hy:   they, themselves

hycgan (hicgan):   consider, think, resolve upon, plan, intend

hycgendne:  considering, thinking, resolving upon, planning, intending

hyġe:   mind, spirit, thought, mind, heart

hyġeġeōmorne (hyġeġeōmor):   sorrowful-minded, sad-spirited, miserable, sad in mind



:  I, myself

in:  in, on, into

is:  is



ġelāc:  motion, commotion, tossing, play, tumult

lango:  longing

lālicost:  most horribly, most unpleasantly

lēas:  without

leġer:  couch, bed, grave, lying

lēodfruma:  prince (leader of a people)

lēodum (lēode):  people, nation

lēofe (lēof):  dear, beloved, pleasant, agreeable

lēofes (leof):  dear

lēofra (leof):  dear

ġelong:  dependent on, belonging to

lifdon (libban):  live

līfe (līf):   life, existence, lifetime

lifġende:   living

londes (lond):   land, earth, country

londstede:   place, region of (the) land

longade (longian):   grieve, be pained

longaes (longa, lango):   longing, grief, discontent

lyt:   little, few



mā:  more

māgas (mġ):  male relative

ġemcne (ġemc):  equal, similar, suitable, companionable

mġ:  may, am able to

mē:  me

mec:  me

miċle (micel):  great, extensive, large, much, big, great, vast

mīn:  my, mine

mīne:  my

mīnes:  my

mīnra:  my

mīnre:  my

mīendne (mīan):  hide, conceal

mōd:  mind, spirit, intention, violence

mōdċeare (modcearu):  sorrow, grief, sorrow of mind

mon:  one, someone; man, person

ġemon (gemunan):  remember, think about, be mindful of

monnan (monna):  man

monnes (monna):  man

moror:  murder

mōt:  must, may, can



nfre:  never

ne:  not

nēah:  near

nemne:  except

niman:  take, take up

nīwes:  new, recent

nō:  not at all

nū:  now



of:  from, of, out of

ofer:  over

oflongad:  distressed by excessive longing

oft:  often

ġeōmor:   sad, sorrowful

ġeōmormōd:   sad-minded, sorrowful-spirited

geōmorre (geōmor): sad

on:  on, in, upon, to, toward, against, into, onto, at, at the time of, during, in the course of,         from, because of

ond:  and

ġeond:   throughout, through

ġeong:   young

ongunnon (onginnan):  begin

onhworfen:  change, turn about, reverse

oe:  or

ōwiht:  nothing



ġerestan:  rest from; give rest to



sceal (sculan):  must, shall, ought to, be obliged, have to, should, will

scyle:  under the obligation to

se:  that, the, that one, who, which, that which, this, the aforementioned, he, she

sēċan:  seek out

secgan:  say

sī:  journey, experience



sinsorgna (sinsorg):  everlasting sorrow, huge sorrow




stānhlie:  rocky cliff, stoney hill, stoney slope

storme:  storm, tempest, tumult, onrush

sumorlangne:  summer-long; as long as a summer's day

swā:  so, as, as if

swylċe:  likewise, also, as if

sy:  should be, may be

sylfre (sylf):  self, own

sylfum (sylf):  self, own



tō:  too, in addition to, to that place

tōdlden (tōdlan):  separate, divide


a:  then, when


ām:  the, that, that one, who, which, that which, this, the aforementioned, he, she

r:  there

re:  the, that

s:  of the, of that

t:  that, the, so that

e:  which, that, who, where, when

es:  this

is:  this

issum (is):  this

ġeōht:  thought, idea, purpose

on:  the, that, that one, who, which, that which, this, the aforementioned, he, she

onne:  then, when, than

urh:  through, with, by means of



ūhtan (uhte):  dawn, dusk, daybreak

ūhtċeare (uhtcearu):  care or worry at dawn or dusk

unc:  us two

uncer:  our

under:  under

ūp:  up

ūphēa:  tall, high



wā:  woe, affliction, evil

ġewāt (gewitan): departed

wre:  should be, might be, should have been

wtre (wter):  water

weardia (weardian):  guard, keep, occupy, keep to

wēaearfe:  miserable deprivation, woeful need

wēpan:  weep, mourn about

wēriġmōd:  despondent, sad-minded, weary in spirit

wesan:  be

wīċ:  dwelling, house, camp, village, habitation

wīde:  widely, far and wide

ġewīdost (ġewīde):  very far apart, widest, very widely

wine:  friend, protector, lord, husband

winelēas:  lordless, friendless

wit:  we two

wīte:  torment, punishment

wonn:  endured

ġeworden: become, turn, change, convert, happen, turn out, be

worulde:  world, life, epoch

woruldrīċe:  kingdom of the world, earthly kingdom

wrāe:  cruelly, grievously, bitterly

wrċċa:  exile, wretch

wrcsīa (wrcsī):  journey of exile, wretched journey, wretched experience

wrece (wrecan):  utter, compose

wuda:  wood, forest grove

wunian:  remain, dwell

wyn (wynn):  joy, pleasure, delight

wynlicran (wynlicor):  more pleasant, more joyful, more delightful

wynna (wyn):  joy, pleasure, delight




yrma (yrmp):  misery, distress, poverty

ya (y):  wave