Larval Food Plants
  Various Species

 L. marginatum* (Butte Desert-parsley)(orange) Endemic to California.

L. eastwoodiae (Eastwood's Desert-parsley) (lavender). Endemic to Mesa,Delta and possibly Garfield Cos., CO.


L. eastwoodiae with 5th instar of P. i. minori at Colodado National Monument, June 25, 2003. This LFP species is generally smaller than most. Notice the plant is nearly eaten away.

L. eastwoodiae Close-up of springs about 5 inches long, June 24, 2003

Morrison Formation slopes near P. i. minori-type locality where L. eastwoodiae grows.


L. howellii (Howell's Biscuitroot)(dark blue) Very limited range at the California - Oregon border.

Harbouria trachypleura (Whiskbroom Parsley) (turquoise) Limited to a thin corridor along the Front Range of Colorado & Wyoming.


Cymopterus panamintensis var.acutifolius* (Panamint Spring-parsley) (light blue) A California endemic.

Tauschia arguta* (Southern Umbrellawort)(red) With a wonderful aroma which is not easily described. Another California endemic.

C. panamintensis in seed and flower. Granite Mountains, Mojave Desert Preserve, April 26, 2003


Cymopterus panamintensis Close-up of sprig.

The effects of fire in the chaparral. T. arguta grows more lush and robust. Nearly all the green in this photo is T. arguta. P. i. pergamus early stages present. Near Idyllwild, CA, May 11, 2002.

T. arguta, same location as above, May 11, 2002.

T. arguta Amongst granite boulders

T. arguta

T. arguta close-up with a 5th instar P. i. pergamus


Tauschia parishii* (Parish's Umbrellawort)(purple) With near mature seed heads. It is a California endemic.

Musineon tenuifolium (Slender Wild-parsley)(green) Has one of the milder aromas.


Tauschia parishii Kennedy Meadows Rd, Tulane, CA, July 7, 2002

T. parishii Close-up or sprig.

Musineon tenuifolium

Lomatium californicum (California Buiscuitroot) (light pink) It smells like celery.






L. latilobum (Canyonland Biscuitroot)(Not on the range map.) Canyon country near Moab and barely into CO near Fruita. Very limited use by Indra Swallowtails.

L. latilobum Close-up of leaves.

L. macrocarpum (Bigseed Biscuitroot)(Range not on the map.)

L. macrocarpum was confirmed by W. H. Whaley in June 2000 at Eight Dollar Mt., Oregon growing with two other LFPs, Lomatium howellii (the preferred LFP at this site) and L. triternatum. D. McCorkle originally identified L. macrocarpum as a host plant for Indra Swallowtails.

Cymopterus purpureus This species is listed in The Butterflies of North America by J. Scott. B.Griffin states that it is used in Monument Valley, UT when growing in association with C. terebinthinus var. petraeus. It is not normally used by Indra Swallowtails, but it should be looked at closer.

Lomatium dissectum var. multifidum Scott (The Butterflies of North America, page 176) lists this as another LFP, but I suspect that it is a misidentification. This is likely C. terebinthinus which occurs in the High Sierras of California from whence the dissectum record came.

Lomatium lucidum Also listed by Scott, but I have not observed indra early stages on this LFP in the wild. However two individuals, Wolfe and Raschko, indicate that they have observed indra early stages on this LFP.

L. lucidum near Idyllwild, CA burn area, May 11, 2002.

L. lucidum near Idyllwild, CA burn area, May 11, 2002.

L. lucidum near Idyllwild, CA burn area, May 11, 2002.

A final note about LFPs and Indra Swallowtail size:

From my experience I must agree with the Emmels that small size is genetically programmed in populations which utilize LFPs that dry up in the Spring. They are genetically programmed to get through five instars quickly, and to pupate by as early as the end of April to early June. I have frequently found 5th instars on desiccated plants of Lomatium grayi in June and there was literally nothing left to eat. By as early as late May some plants (e.g., L. grayi and C. panamintensis) are pretty well desiccated. These two plants also support the smallest Indra races.